Beverages
  Coffee
 

Species
Coffea canephora
(BR & C x R clonal parents)

Species description
Family
Rubiaceae

Habit
Woody perennial, Small trees and bushes

Relatives
Coffea arabica

Importance of the Species
The species is the source of robusta coffee

Remarks
C. canephora is highly cross pollinated and hence there is a high rate of variation in the seed progeny. There is a wide scope for attaining uniformity in robusta plantations through micropropagation.

Area Under Cultivation
About 1.50 lakh ha of C. canephora is grown in India.


Studies Carried Out
Following tissue culture studies were carried out to develop in vitro multiplication technology for 10 selected clones of robusta coffee ( 5 clones each of BR & CxR cultivars):

Micropropagation
In vitro multiplication of ten selected adult clones of BR and C x R parents via bud and nodal explants.

Somatic embryogenesis
Clonal multiplication was achieved through somatic embryogenesis in all the 10 clones.

Details Of The Protocol Developed
Nature of explant
Leaf

Mode of regeneration
Somatic embryogenesis.

Media details

- MS + IAA (1 mg/1) + Kn (5 mg/1) for somatic embryogenesis.
- MS + ABA (1 mg/1) for somatic embryo maturation.
- ½ MS + Kn (0/1 mg/1) for somatic embryo germination.

Shooting /rooting rate
5-10% of somatic embryos could be converted into plantlets.

Total number of plants produced
Around 1500

Nursery/Field Evaluation
BR-4, BR-10 and C x R clones hardened in green house.
BR-11 planted and established in the field.
These plants showed good vegetative growth with long shoots and many primary and secondary branches and thick, broad leaves.

Status Of Protocol
The protocol for microcutting production by apical bud and axillary bud is to be developed further.

Transfer Of Technology
Yet to be done

Constraints
Microshoot production difficult from mature plants due to contamination, phenolic oxidation, abscission associated with poor bud break and shoot development. Multiplication rate varied and poor in few of the clones.

Future Plan Of Action
Further refinement of protocols to make them commercially viable. Large scale field evaluation to ascertain the genetic fidelity of the somatic embryo derived plants.